Mr. Kumar, PNAS Vol. 112, no. 3 and 4 (2015)
1: About anti-freeze protein, AFP. Midge AFP was purified by ice affinity purification method. This method is used the property of ice binding site, which binds water molecules. This paper showed mass and CD spectrum data of Midge AFP and simulated the structure to compare another AFP from insect. This concluded Midge AFP and another insect AFP were similar, such as disulfide bond site, and this derives from convergent evolution.

2: About Argonote-bound microRNA, miRNA. This paper suggests that in vivo, many expressed miRNA exist in an inactive LWMR, allowing resting cells to use miRNA to dynamically regulate the translation of target mRNAs in their environments.

3: About type III secretion system structure, T3SS. The structural analysis of WT and mutants (mxiN and spa33), which are homologous to flagellar components, using cryo tomography showed for the first time, the cytoplasmic complex structure of T3SS. This is similar to the C ring complex. The authors developed a model from the cytoplasmic complex to explain the recognition and sorting of secretion substrates.